Créer un VPN avec OpenSSH
Most SSH clients have the ability to perform local and remote port forwarding. This is a pretty neat use of SSH if you haven’t ever seen it before. OpenSSH can take it one step further and provide a full VPN solution encrypting all network traffic on all ports between two machines. This is pretty powerful stuff. This is useful for a quick-and-dirty way to encrypt all traffic between two machines. For a longer term solution, you might want to check out how to configure IPsec or use OpenVPN. All three solutions have some really cool features and benefits.
OpenSSH is the most widely deployed open source SSH client / server solution today. Most Linux/BSD hosts I have encountered will use this as the client/server by default. Sun’s ssh packages are based off of the OpenSSH distribution with some tweaks and modifications, but its pretty close to OpenSSH’s implementation.
Anyways, to create a VPN tunnel between two machines, two variables in sshd_config need to be tweaked as well as the presence of the tun/tap kernel module. This kernel module is available on most Linux/BSD distributions. It may have to be compiled and inserted into the Solaris kernel, or you can download it here.
$ uname -a Linux locutus 2.6.25-14.fc9.i686 #1 SMP Thu May 1 06:28:41 EDT 2008 i686 i686 i386 GNU/Linux $ lsmod | grep tun tun 11776 2 $ modinfo tun filename: /lib/modules/2.6.25-14.fc9.i686/kernel/drivers/net/tun.ko alias: char-major-10-200 license: GPL author: (C) 1999-2004 Max Krasnyansky <[email protected]> description: Universal TUN/TAP device driver srcversion: 12C02361DF16200902CDE64 depends: vermagic: 2.6.25-14.fc9.i686 SMP mod_unload 686 4KSTACKS
So, the tun module has already been inserted into my running kernel. Next, set these two variables in sshd_config and have sshd re-read its configuration files…
... PermitRootLogin yes PermitTunnel yes ...
$ service sshd reload Reloading sshd: [ OK ]
Make sure you don’t mess up sshd_config and reload the daemon as your only way to access the machine! Console access is always a good thing.
Now all we need to do is to open the VPN tunnel itself. Here, I open a VPN tunnel to localhost (not really useful) but you can get the idea…
ssh -w any:any [email protected]
The any:any defines the local:remote “tun” device. We could have put 0:1 here, (tun0 as the local, tun1 as the remote) but any:any takes care of it for us in case there are any pre-existing tun devices in use.) or 0:0 if we were accessing a real remote machine. (I can’t define two “tun0? devices on localhost)
So, after my SSH session connects, sure enough the tun devices exist..
Now all we have to do is assign them some network addresses and let them know that its a point-to-point connection between the two…
Nice! Now all network traffic between the machines using those newly created addresses will be tunneled through SSH! Could this be a solution for NFSv3 and firewalls? ;-)
If there are multiple machines on the “other side” of the VPN that you would want to connect to, you will also need to add a route..
So any traffic destined for 10.0.0.0/24 is gonna go out tun0 to be routed onwards and upwards.
We’ve also got to set up an arp entry..
$ arp -sD 10.0.0.11 eth0 pub $ arp -an ? (10.0.0.11) at * PERM PUP on eth0
Ryan McGuire wrote a pretty cool blog entry about not only this feature, but some other really neat things with OpenSSH. I based a lot of this article after learning them from his site. Check out his python script that will automate a lot of this for you. Thanks Ryan!